X-Rayted Files: A Century of X-Rays in the Automotive Industry, Part 1

If you have read any of my previous columns, you know that I’m passionate about X-rays and cars. And electronics, which started as a hobby when I was age 9, turned into a passion after I received an associate degree in electronics when I was 13. It went downhill from there, meaning I’ve been looking forward to writing about these passions, and I can’t believe it’s finally here! What makes this experience even better is the fact I also have a chance to talk about some of my idols, including Curie, Roentgen, Marconi, Galvin, and Ford.

Here’s how this column will go. I’ll start in 1895, jump to World War I, stop by the 1930s, and wrap up with how X-rays are used in the automotive industry today. It so happens that brevity is not one of my few qualities, so I had to split this column into two parts. There’s a lot to cover, so let’s get going!

It all started in 1895 when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in Germany. It didn’t take long for him to realize the potential impact of his discovery to society. To guarantee the fast and widespread use of X-rays, Roentgen decided not to patent his invention. It turns out he was right. By early 1896, Dr. Edwin Frost was taking X-rays of a broken arm in Dartmouth, Massachusetts. That’s an incredible adoption speed for a technology considering the people who invented the internet were not even born yet! Even by modern standards, X-ray had a meteoric adoption rise.

Unfortunately, things are not all rosy and peaceful in Europe. In 1914, the continent was at war. Curie and Roentgen have several things in common. They are both Nobel prize winners. They were also humanitarians, despite being on different sides of the Great War. Instead of using her creative juices to build bombs, Curie decided to join the war effort to save lives. She knew of the benefits of X-rays in finding a bullet inside a soldier’s leg. As a result, she invented the first car-based X-ray machine or the first X-ray machine on wheels—however you choose to describe the beautiful vehicle in Figure 1.

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Figure 1: One of Curie’s mobile units used by the French Army (Source: National Library of France, Prints and Photography Department [1])

The history of the automotive and X-ray industries would be henceforth intertwined. Not much later, Henry Ford took X-rays of Model A radiator fans that broke due to poor casting. Fast forward a few decades, and we are taking computed tomography scans of casting automotive parts to look for the same problems (Figure 2).

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Figure 2: Computed tomography (CT) scans of castings for an automotive application.

The history of X-ray inspection and the automotive industry came together again once electronics were introduced to cars. Interestingly, the first piece of electronics boarded on a car was the radio, which was invented by Guglielmo Marconi—also in 1895—in Italy, not far from Roentgen. By the early 1920s, radio stations were multiplying, and radios were becoming a staple piece of furniture in homes across the world.

In the late 1920s, Henry Ford was looking for a way to differentiate his cars from the stiff competition from GM. In 1930, brothers Paul and Joe Galvin showed old Henry how to add a victrola (radio) to a car. Their MOTOrized victROLA (guess the name of Galvin’s company) cost $130 and was revolutionary. For reference, the Ford Model A was being sold for $540. Galvin’s radio needed an extra battery (and sometimes an extra generator) to be added to the car (Figure 3). Unfortunately, despite all of Galvin’s marketing and technological efforts, the adoption of their new technology was slow on the heels of the Great Depression. It would be a couple of decades before Ford and others started selling radios in their cars as a factory option.

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Figure 3: A circa-1930 brochure advertises a Motorola car radio.

Galvin’s breakthrough led to the convergence of X-rays, automobiles, and electronics. Radios became a part of cars. Like it did with radios, the automotive industry started to embed more electronics to their products, especially after the invention of the transistor in 1947 and the transistor radio in 1954. The increasing adoption of onboard electronics over the past seven decades has brought an increasing set of headaches to carmakers.

Next Time

In Part 2 of this column, I will review the many ways X-ray inspection helps the automotive industry assess the quality of their products. From the inspection of quad-flat no-leads (QFN) to ball grid arrays (BGAs) all the way to the verification of solder fill on through-hole vias (THV), X-rays are used daily in the manufacturing of automotive electronics. These systems need to operate under the worst conditions of temperature and humidity cycling, exposure to acids, vibration, shock, and others. The same car is supposed to operate in the cold winters of Alaska and the hot summers of Arizona. We’ll see how X-rays help make it happen!

References

Dr. Bill Cardoso is CEO of Creative Electron.

 

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2020

X-Rayted Files: A Century of X-Rays in the Automotive Industry, Part 1

09-29-2020

If you have read any of Bill Cardoso's previous columns, you know that he is passionate about X-rays, cars, and electronics. In this column series, he talks about some of his idols, including Curie, Roentgen, Marconi, Galvin, and Ford.

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X-Rayted Files: Is Quality Really Priceless?

08-19-2020

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X-Rayted Files: Marching Toward 2021, 20 Miles at a Time

07-29-2020

We’re only at the halfway mark, and 2020 has been a real challenge. Our best-laid plans have been cast in doubt by the COVID-19 pandemic. During this transformational time, Dr. Bill Cardoso looks back a century for a bit of inspiration from Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.

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X-Rayted Files: E-Commerce Boom Fraught With Risk—X-Rays to the Rescue

06-17-2020

It’s not news that online sales are increasing dramatically during this global pandemic. However, with increased sales comes the increased risk of return fraud and abuse. Dr. Bill Cardoso explains how X-ray can help detect dummy and counterfeit merchandise.

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X-Rayted Files: Why Do We Break Stuff? Intelligence From Teardowns

05-20-2020

The impulse to break a new gadget to "see what's inside" and to “learn how it works” is often the first sign someone will become an engineer. We’ve learned a lot in over a decade of teardowns, which have helped us to understand how the SMT industry has changed over these years. Bill Cardoso investigates.

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X-Rayted Inspection: Manufacturing in the Eye of a Pandemic

04-08-2020

Dr. Bill Cardoso usually writes about X-ray inspection, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and how it all connects to Industry 4.0. This month, however, he shifts gears and shares some of the things Creative Electron has been doing during the COVID-19 outbreak.

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X-rayted Files: X-ray and AI—A Match Made In Heaven, Part 2

03-18-2020

In Part 1, Dr. Bill Cardoso covered the basics of the relationship between X-ray inspection and artificial intelligence (AI). In Part 2, Cardoso takes a step forward to cover some of the practical ways we use AI to improve the efficiency of our X-ray inspections.

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X-Rayted Files: X-Ray and AI—A Match Made In Heaven, Part 1

02-05-2020

Dr. Bill Cardoso has been working with AI for a while now and seen real application and success in X-ray inspection, as well as failures. In Part 1 of this column series, he shares how AI is changing the way we think about X-ray inspection.

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X-Rayted Files: When SMT Lines Develop Line Conscience

01-22-2020

Bill Cardoso explores the history of Henry Ford's assembly line, how this may be the end of the automation era, and the future of autonomous systems, AI, machine learning, etc.

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2019

X-Rayted Files: Will Radiation Damage My Electronic Component?

12-17-2019

Before I start talking about radiation damage on electronic components, let me warn you: if you are looking for a simple “yes” or “no” answer to the question, "Will radiation damage my electronic component?" stop reading now. Things will get complicated. You may feel like I did not answer the question at all, and you would be correct. There are whole conferences dedicated to this question (check IEEE’s Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference), so the goal of this column is to give you some background to guide you to the right answer for your specific situation. Ultimately, the best way is to ask an expert.

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X-Rayted Files: The Currency of Technology

11-11-2019

In the ever-moving tide of technology, the need to innovate requires a constant shift in vision, and this need has never been more evident than in PCB manufacturing. In fact, innovation has become so valuable that PCBs are quickly becoming the currency of technology. Dr. Bill Cardoso explains.

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X-Rayted Files: The Risk of Installing Counterfeit Parts

10-02-2019

In high-tech manufacturing, the use of sub-standard components can be catastrophic. There is no greater need for quality control than in PCBs, as they are only as good as the components installed on them; therein lies the problem. Some components shipped to manufacturers are counterfeit!

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X-Rayted Files: Just Because You Can't See the Problem Doesn't Mean It's Not There!

08-20-2019

In this new column, Dr. Bill Cardoso will cover everything related to X-rays from cool historical facts to the latest in technological advancements, starting with the discovery of X-rays in 1895.

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