The Printed Circuit Assembler's Guide to... ™
Low-Temperature Soldering

by: Morgana Ribas, Ph.D., et al., Alpha Assembly Solutions

With the move to lead-free solder, the electronics manufacturing industry now has the opportunity to explore and implement assembly solutions that take advantage of lower temperature materials and processes.

Written by Morgana Ribas and other expert authors from Alpha Assembly Solutions, this book provides an introduction to the evolution of modern low-temperature soldering, illustrates the importance of chemistry when developing low-temperature solders, and discusses advanced and emerging applications where lower melting point alloys can provide unique assembly solutions.

Readers will learn the benefits low-temperature alloys have to offer, such as reducing costs, creating more reliable solder joints, and overcoming design limitations with traditional alloys.

ISBN: 978-0-9998648-4-5

Morgana Ribas, Ph.D.
Manager, Metals Technology Group—R&D
Alpha Assembly Solutions

Morgana is a metallurgical engineer with a master's degree in extractive metallurgy from UFRGS in Brazil and a Ph.D. from Rice University in the United States. Currently, Dr. Ribas is manager for the metals technology group at Alpha Assembly Solutions. Her work has appeared in more than 50 publications, including technical journals, conference proceedings, and patents.

The other contributing authors for this book are:

  • Tom Hunsinger, VP of Global Marketing, Alpha Assembly Solutions
  • Traian Cucu, Ph.D., Group Leader, Global Applications and Technologies Expert Group (GATE)—R&D, Alpha Assembly Solutions
  • Ramakrishna H V, Ph.D., Manager of Chemistry, Alpha Assembly Solutions
  • Garian Lim, Interconnect Solution Portfolio Manager, Alpha Advanced Materials
  • Mike Murphy, Director of Marketing—Core Products, Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions, part of the MacDermid Performance Solutions group of businesses, is the world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative specialty materials used for electronics assembly, die attach, and semiconductor packaging in a wide range of industry segments, including automotive, communications, computers, consumer, power electronics, LED lighting, and photovoltaics.

For over a century, electronics manufacturers have relied on Alpha for tailor-made solutions that exceed specifications for quality, efficiency, effectiveness, and cost. Our company mission is to always uphold a standard of excellence.

As the industry continues to evolve, Alpha remains focused on developing unique processes for solving assembly challenges.

For more information, visit

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This book has been technically reviewed by the following experts:

Happy Holden

Consulting Technical Editor,

Raiyo Aspandiar, Ph.D. Senior Engineer, Intel Corporation

Chapter Summaries

  • Chapter 1

    Low-Temperature Soldering

    Chapter 1 defines low-temperature alloys and explores related concepts, processes, and benefits.
  • Chapter 2

    History and Overview of Low-Temperature Solders

    Chapter 2 explains the move to lead-free solder and the properties and trade-offs considered in this transition.
  • Chapter 3

    Second Generation Low-Temperature Solders

    Chapter 3 addresses the increased use of low-temperature alloys and microalloying additions.
  • Chapter 4

    Using the Right Chemistry

    Chapter 4 highlights potential defects and how to avoid them, as well as tests needed to meet market requirements.
  • Chapter 5

    Advanced Applications for Low-Temperature Solders

    Chapter 5 explores emerging low-temperature solder applications that provide unique assembly solutions.

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Happy Holden Happy Holden is the retired director of electronics and innovations for GENTEX Corporation. Formerly, he was the chief technical officer for the world’s largest PCB fabricator—Hon Hai Precision Industries (Foxconn). Prior to Foxconn, Holden was the senior PCB technologist for Mentor Graphics and advanced technology manager at Nan Ya/Westwood Associates and Merix. He previously worked at Hewlett-Packard for over 28 years as director of PCB R&D and manufacturing engineering manager. He has been involved in advanced PCB technologies for over 47 years.

Raiyo Aspandiar, Ph.D. Raiyo Aspandiar has worked at Intel Corporation in the boards and system assembly facility in Hillsboro, Oregon, since 1983. He was part of the team that introduced surface mount technology to Intel. Over the years, he has participated in the development of PCBs and assembly processes for motherboards and mobile modules, which contained a myriad of packages for the Intel microprocessors, chip sets, and connectors. Currently, Raiyo is working on and low temperature soldering development. Raiyo has published more than 65 technical papers and is the joint holder of 15 patents in the electronics packaging and manufacturing field. He is also a former member of the SMTA Board of Directors and the SMTA Technical Committee and received the SMTA Member of Technical Distinction Award in 2009. He is a graduate of Stanford University and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.