The Printed Circuit Assembler's Guide to... ™
Encapsulating Sustainability for Electronics

by: Beth Turner, MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions

The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to Encapsulating Sustainability for Electronics is a guide to encapsulation resins and their use in ruggedizing electronic devices. Learn about aspects such as their chemistry, application, and relevant test methods in different industries. The book also discusses the growing demand for sustainable solutions in the market and highlights examples of bio-based resins and the demand from emerging technologies.

ISBN: 978-1-959894-07-0

Beth Turner
Senior Technical Manager at MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions

Beth Turner has spent her career working in Research and Development focusing on new product technologies for the Coating, Adhesive, Sealant and Elastomers (CASE) market. Through this experience, Beth has gained a thorough understanding of the chemical formulations, range of application processes, product test methods, and certifications relevant to potting and encapsulants for use in electronics.
Beth is a recognised technical subject matter expert and is a member of the IPC APEX EXPO Technical Program Committee, IPC Potting and Encapsulation Task group, and a speaker for GfKORR Society for Corrosion Protection seminar: “The Application and Utilisation of Protective Coatings for Electronic Assemblies.” Beth is a regular speaker at IPC and SMTA events. Her research interest is safer, sustainable, alternative chemistries and materials for electronics ruggedization in harsh environments, and she regularly collaborates with world-leading universities to pioneer exploratory research in this area. In 2022, Beth was awarded the prestigious “Best Next Gen” technical paper for her research into bio-based encapsulation resins for use in the electronics market.

MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions, a prominent division of Element Solutions Inc, holds a distinguished position as a global leader in the field of fully integrated materials, helping to deliver enhanced performance, reliability, and sustainability to electronics manufacturers worldwide.

Their expertise is segmented into three divisions: Circuitry Solutions, Film & Smart Surface Solutions, and Semiconductor & Assembly Solutions (SAS). The SAS division specializes in delivering cutting-edge solutions for semiconductors and assembly processes, driving innovation and reliability in these critical sectors.

With a legacy spanning over a century of innovation, MacDermid Alpha has garnered the trust of manufacturers across more than 50 countries.

Setting MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions apart is its unique ability to promptly deliver high-quality solutions and provide technical services that comprehensively cover the entire electronics supply chain. They are actively shaping industries such as automotive, consumer electronics, mobile devices, telecom, data storage, and infrastructure..

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This book has been technically reviewed by the following experts:

Dr. Helmut Schweigart

Jason Keeping

Chapter Summaries

  • Chapter 1

    What Are Encapsulation Resins, and Why Do We Use Them?

    The author defines encapsulation resins and discusses their application, highlighting their properties, advantages, and limitations.
  • Chapter 2

    Application Overview

    This chapter provides an overview of encapsulant application. Storage considerations, liquid properties, the pre-encapsulant process, application methods, cure process profiling, and resin removal are also examined.
  • Chapter 3

    Industry Sectors and Relevant Test Methods

    This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of general-purpose and specialist encapsulation resins for electronic applications. Also covered are properties, testing methods, suitability for harsh environments, and thermal management of high-power density electronic devices.
  • Chapter 4


    Bio-based encapsulation resins have the potential to contribute to sustainability targets by extending product lifetime and improving performance. The author explores the use of recycled materials such as biogenic waste and lightweight expandable polymers to create more efficient and environmentally friendly encapsulation resins.

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Dr. Helmut Schweigart Dr. Helmut Schweigart, Head of Reliability and Surfaces, Zestron Dr.-Ing. Helmut Schweigart is head of the engineering consulting department Reliability and Surfaces at Zestron Europe, located in Ingolstadt, Germany. Helmut holds a diploma in mechanical engineering and completed his Ph.D. thesis concerning the reliability of conformal-coated electronic assemblies at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. From 1998 to 2012, Helmut managed the application technology at Zestron. Since 2013, he has built up Zestron’s service department concerning risk mitigation against corrosion, humidity, and high voltage issues of electronics. Helmut is committed to his role as a member of the board of the German GfKORR society and is involved in several working groups focused on the corrosion and reliability of electronics. He is actively engaged in IEC standardization committees and has authored numerous publications. Helmut is the editor of "Guidelines for the Application and Utilization of Protective Coatings for Electronic Assemblies," which has become IEC PAS 61191-10.

Jason Keeping Jason Keeping, Global Process Subject Matter Expert, Celestica
Jason is a Global Process Subject Matter Expert for Ruggedized Electronics at Celestica. Throughout his career, he has focused on evaluating the capabilities and manufacturability of dispensing technologies/processes, conformal coating, underfill chemistries, and assembly-level cleanliness. Jason has been recognized with several awards, including the 2016 SMTA award for Excellence in International Leadership. He is the author of the conformal coating chapter of the Printed Circuits Handbook and the Lead-free Soldering Process Development and Reliability book. Additionally, Jason serves as the chair of the Cleaning and Coating Committee within IPC.
Recently, Jason presented, along with Dave Hillman of Collins Aerospace, an industry-wide baseline study on conformal coating, supporting a J-STD-001 initiative with data and support of industry-leading organizations. Jason has worked alongside Stephan Meschter of BAE Systems as a principal investigator on two U.S. DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Projects (SERDP) examining corrosion-induced whisker growth.