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DFM 101: Final Finishes—Electrolytic Nickel/GoldJanuary 30, 2023 | Anaya Vardya, American Standard Circuits
Estimated reading time: 1 minute
One of the biggest challenges facing PCB designers is not understanding the cost drivers in the PCB manufacturing process. This article is the latest in a series that will discuss these cost drivers (from the PCB manufacturer’s perspective) and the design decisions that will impact product reliability.
Final finishes provide a surface for the component assembler to solder, wire bond, or conductively attach a component pad or lead to a pad, hole, or area of a PCB. The other use for a final finish is to provide a known contact resistance and life cycle for connectors, keys, or switches. The primary purpose of a final finish is to create electrical and thermal continuity with a surface of the PCB.
There are several final finishes in use in the industry today. These include:
- ENIG (electroless nickel, immersion gold)
- ENIPIG (electroless nickel, immersion palladium, immersion gold)
- ENEPIG (electroless nickel, electroless palladium, immersion gold)
- ImmAg (immersion silver)
- ImmSn (immersion tin)
- Sulfamate nickel/hard or soft gold (electrolytic nickel/gold)
- HASL (hot air solder leveling)
- SnPb (63/37 tin/lead)
- LF (lead-free)
- OSP (organic solderability preservative)
Final finishes are primarily application driven, so there are several considerations that should be part of any decision to choose a final finish:
- Lead-tolerant or lead-free (LF) process
- Shelf life
- Lead or ball pitch
- Wire bondability
- Lead insertion
- Solder joint integrity
- Corrosion resistance
- Potential problems
To read this entire article, which appeared in the December 2022 issue of Design007 Magazine, click here.
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Hentec Industries/RPS Automation, a leading manufacturer of selective soldering, component lead tinning and solderability test equipment, announces that it has added assembly and production staff members to its team to accommodate its recent increase in sales and order demand.
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