Latest Articles

Certificate vs. Certification: Achieving Your Organization’s Goals

The terms “certification” and “certificate” are often used interchangeably, but there are well-defined differences in the world of credentials. These differences have important implications for when and how your organization invests in training and validation programs. In this article, I’ll break down the meaning and characteristics of each term, introduce IPC’s approach to training and certification, and explain how you can leverage each credential to achieve your goals.

From Chips to Systems: Building a Resilient Electronics Manufacturing Base in the EU

Electronics are ubiquitous, underpinning everything from personal devices and electric vehicles to wind turbines and industrial systems. These technologies are essential to nearly every aspect of modern life, making a thriving electronics manufacturing sector crucial for the EU's industrial resilience, regional security, and technological advancement. As industries increasingly depend on electronics for innovation, the role of electronics manufacturers as key facilitators of Europe’s digital and environmental transitions increases significantly.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week

Are you ready for the weekend? Fin de semana? I think we all are! In this week’s roundup, we have one article on what it takes to thrive in the industry today, as well as an interview that discusses one student’s drive to succeed as a PCB designer. We also have an article by our newest columnist, Tom Yang, who introduces us to his family-owned PCB company. Columnist Hanna Grace brings us an interview with her mentor, and Anaya Vardya continues his UHDI coverage with an article that explains UHDI’s use in the RF/microwave arena.

SEMICON 2024 Wraps Up and Says Goodbye to San Francisco

In stark contrast to Tuesday’s overcast drive into “The City,” it is a beautiful, sunny day as I depart San Francisco after spending the last few days at SEMICON West 2024. Though I spend most of my time in Phoenix these days, I am a Bay Area baby by birth. Whenever I am in the city, my strong feelings about San Francisco surprise me. I love SF, warts and all. That being said, I applaud the city of San Francisco for keeping the area pristine in front of and around Moscone Center.

Getting Clear About Certification With Charlie Capers

Walk through the entrance at Zentech Dallas and you’ll see a wall of certification plaques prominently displayed. Beyond being impressive and a point of pride, these certifications tell a story to potential customers: This company is ready to do business. Charlie Capers, former vice president and general manager, shares his insights on quantifying the ROI of certifications. You may not see it on paper, but it’s definitely there. He also talks about his expectations for new hires and shares a case study about the importance of collaborating with your PCB designers.

Book Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Factory Analytics, Chapter 2

In this chapter, we’ll focus on the most important analytics at the forefront of SMT, from the solder paste machine to placement machines, and breakdown these metrics from the perspectives of the different decision makers involved in the process. The lead SMT shift manager isn’t going to have the same concerns as a quality manager, so it’s important to look at how each machine and operation contains valuable KPIs for each role.

An Interview With My Mentor, Christina Rutherford

I first came to IPC APEX EXPO as a Student Board Member, and during my time on the board, I discovered that the show is not just another endpoint to a conference, but a launching pad for ideas, connections, and inspiration that lasts for decades. As participants leave the conference, they continue sharing knowledge and experiences that linger, affirming the enduring significance of IPC APEX EXPO in shaping the future of electronics.

Sustainability and Workforce Topics Dominate Day 2 of SEMICON West 

​​​​​Sustainability and the workforce were prolific themes for the second day of SEMICON West on July 10 in San Francisco. Sustainability kicked off with keynote speaker Al Gore, the former U.S. vice president and arguably America’s most passionate environmental advocate for nearly 50 years. He once again outlined the serious environmental issues and timelines we are facing and emphasized the importance of the industry’s commitment to sustainability initiatives.

THECA: Thailand’s Coming-out Party

Swaek Prakitritanon is vice president and general secretary of the Thailand Printed Circuit Association (THPCA), and we recently spoke about the inaugural Thailand Electronics Circuit Asia (THECA) trade show, July 24–26, in Bangkok. Among the six specific benefits cited for THECA attendees are valuable insights into the technology transfer to the China + 1 Asian region, specifically Thailand, as a ripe investment opportunity for PCB and PCBA companies. 

New Issue of IPC Community Now Ready for Your Summer Reading Pleasure

If you’re like most of us in this industry, you have a passion for your work—and it shows. In the new issue of IPC Community, which publishes online today, we feature multiple examples of individuals and companies passionate about their jobs and their work in electronics manufacturing. They truly care about #buildingelectronicsbetter.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week 

I spent my week at SEMICON West in San Francisco, returning last night. It was a full week that had me drawing parallels between what is happening in the semiconductor sector and in our segment of the supply chain. I had my mind blown listening to presentations and panels on things like quantum computing. The future is indeed bright. Tech-heavy, but very bright. If there was one phrase from the conference that rings most true in my mind, it is “unprecedented opportunities and unprecedented challenges.” Stay tuned for SEMICON coverage over the next week and additional coverage in our August magazines. 

SEMICON WEST 2024 Kicks Off in San Francisco

Unsurprisingly, it is overcast as I drive into San Francisco to the Moscone Center for SEMICON 2024. The doors did not open until 7:30 am, which left a few of us loitering outside anticipating what we’d find on the other side of the doors. I am one of those strange individuals who kind of loves trade shows and conferences. I have always had a curious mind and thirst for knowledge, so continuing my education on cutting-edge technology and market trends fills me with energy. SEMICON and semiconductors are not our core industry, but everything that they do and work toward informs and trickles down into the reality of the printed circuit board supply chain. 

Counterfeit Detection Course: It’s the Real Deal

Anthony (Tony) Bryant is a trained expert in component counterfeiting techniques who has been collaborating with IPC on a new intermediate-level course on counterfeits. Tony is in final preparation to launch this course and shared his reasons for the course, as well as information about its content and value to EMS companies.

Book Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Low-Temperature Soldering, Vol. 2, Chapter 2

The evolution of low-temperature solder alloys requires thoughtful consideration of the thermal and mechanical reliability requirements specific to each application. Thermal cycling and drop (mechanical) shock tests have long been used as board-level proxy tests for evaluating and quantifying the ability of electronics assemblies to sustain abrupt, short-term mechanical stresses, as well as continuous cyclic stresses.

My Experience as an IPC Student Chapter Leader

IPC has played a major role in my student life. In 2019, the IPC Education Foundation established its first student chapter at Auburn University, and I have been associated with this chapter since 2020 when I joined the electronics reliability research group at Auburn University as a PhD student under Dr. Sa’d Hamasha.

The Value Side of Training, Part 1: Five Easy Ways to Measure the ROI on Training

The best thing about a good investment is the yield it provides. This series of articles on the value side of training will focus on how to effectively measure the return on your investment (ROI) when training your staff. I will offer practical, quantifiable metrics you can apply today. Think of it as a quick checklist for every effective training program.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week

It’s a holiday weekend in the United States, but the news doesn’t stop just because a few of us have the day off! You’ll have to pardon me; my ears are still ringing from the fireworks. Without further ado, here are the five things you should not miss from this week.

BOOK EXCERPT: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Encapsulating Sustainability for Electronics, Chapter 2

There are many important things to consider when applying an encapsulant. Chapter 2 of this book is an overview of the application process that covers many of the terms and definitions found on a technical data sheet and discusses the primary considerations for each of the process stages. It is worthwhile considering some of the terms and definitions found on a technical data sheet to understand how the different liquid, mixed system, and cured property values can dictate the method chosen to apply materials.

Effectively Using Dashboards at Ascentron

Ascentron is a small EMS company started in Oregon in 2002 from the ashes of what had been a $30 million EMS company that lost 90% of its sales during the dot-com and electronics industry bust of 2001. We started out at $3 million a year in sales and worked to reinvent the business. We transformed it from what was a medium-to-high-volume manufacturer serving automotive, communications, and computer customers into a low-to-medium-volume manufacturer serving aviation, medical, industrial, instrumentation, and military customers. We were successful in our efforts, growing over 600% in six years, reaching $20 million by 2008.

SEMICON West 2024 Preshow Interview, FLEX Conference Review

In this preshow interview for SEMICON West 2024 and the FLEX Conference, we dive into the dynamic world of semiconductor and flexible electronics, revealing cutting-edge insights from industry leaders with SEMI’s Samer Bahou, Gity Samadi and Julie Rogers and Bob Praino from Chasm Advanced Materials who advises the FLEX program. Set against the backdrop of the prestigious Moscone Center in San Francisco, the discussion traverses the history, evolution, and future directions of this critical sector, spotlighting the CHIPS Act, the importance of flexible and hybrid electronics technology for the sector going forward, and touches on issues such as sustainability and workforce. Here’s why you should be attending SEMICON West 2024 and FLEX Conference.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week 

Much of our recent coverage focuses on being ready for the future—technologically and otherwise. We have news about APCT relaunching as AdvancedPCB, and an interview with Freedom CAD’s Scott Miller about their new leadership—young managers who bring new vision to the company.  We also have coverage of “Bold Breakthroughs: Women Reshaping the Engineering Landscape,” a webinar that celebrates Women in Engineering Day. We bring you an interview with Ventec’s Alun Morgan, who discusses the advent of glassless materials, and an article by FCT’s Chris Clark about cost-drivers in the flex and rigid-flex arena.

Webinar Review: Women Reshaping the Engineering Landscape

IPC celebrated International Women in Engineering Day with “Bold Breakthroughs: Women Reshaping the Engineering Landscape,” a webinar moderated by Teresa Rowe, IPC senior director of assembly and standards technology. The event featured a panel of eight innovative engineers representing eight different countries, and each with varied backgrounds and in various stages of their respective careers.

Book Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Factory Analytics—Chapter 1

Despite being a widely discussed topic since the advent of Industry 4.0 initiatives, the implementation and utilization of analytics tools by electronics manufacturers has been slow, with an adoption rate significantly lower than anticipated. Most of this stagnation can be attributed to the fact that getting data from the factory floor simply isn’t as straightforward as it should be.

Career Opportunities Are Knocking

Are workforce topics on your mind? In this market, of course they are! Finding and keeping qualified employees is continually cited as one of today’s greatest business challenges. That's why I-Connect007 features Career Opportunities in every magazine issue. Whether you’re looking to hire or be hired, check out the Career Opportunities section in every issue of our magazines.

SMTA Oregon Event Spreads Its Wings

Hillsboro, Oregon is home to the largest Intel campus in the United States as the base of operations for most of Intel’s CPU development. Hillsboro boasts experts and teams in IC and PCB physical layout, packaging, and R&D. Intel and satellite companies in its orbit deliver PCB fabrication and PCB assembly as well. So it's no surprise that SMTA Oregon’s annual meeting takes place practically in the shadows of Intel’s Hillsboro campus.

New IPC Europe Report, Advocacy Campaign

In the European Union, as in the United States, today’s geopolitical realities are shaping a new approach to the region’s industrial strategy. The wars in Ukraine and the Middle East, as well as tensions in East Asia and actions being taken in other regions to support key industries, are heightening Europe’s focus on measures to close productivity and innovation gaps, especially where they raise security concerns.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week 

He’s back, and in splendid form. Pete’s Starkey’s coverage of the EIPC Summer Conference, which took place June 4-5 at the European Space Centre, The Netherlands, is top notch. Joan Tourné from NextGIn Technologies emphasized that our attention must be focused on the interconnection ability of our PCBs and highlights VeCS as an alternative to the traditional plated-through-hole approach. Finally, Martyn Cauwe of IMEC discusses environmental impact and specifically, the need for a better, parametric approach to quantifying it, something European businesses are being required to do on the regular.

Where Is the China Business Going?

We met with Milwaukee Electronics’ CEO Jered Stoehr and Vice President of Sales Paul Forker to discuss the evolving dynamics of Mexico's role in global trade, particularly in comparison to China. The recent increase in trade with Mexico, due to the impact of tariffs on business opportunities, and the shift of some companies from China to Mexico stemming from factors like cost competitiveness and geopolitical risks, have been key to Mexico’s position as the number one trade partner with the U.S.

IPC Impact Day Recap With Rich Cappetto

IPC has hosted its annual IPC Impact Day in Washington, D.C., for at least the past decade, with the first event taking place in the 1990s. This popular and important advocacy tool allows an industry segment to meet their local congresspeople, educate them on important issues, and influence new or existing legislation to support their interests. We spoke with Rich Cappetto, senior director of North American government relations at IPC, about the importance of the event and what it means for the greater PCB industry. He also highlighted an important change: There will be several IPC Impact Days throughout the year to allow smaller groups of industry professionals to visit Washington more often with a more targeted message.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week

This week’s must-reads are comprised of news which moves the industry forward. We’ve had quite a lot of news on a global scale, and they’re all good reads. To winnow down to just five, I chose either new information or interesting takes on ongoing industry stories. To that end, we have news about new capital equipment for advanced packaging, discussions of material selection and the imaging process during PCB fabrication, a columnist's ode to the best engineer she knows, and some optimistic news from the semiconductor industry.

Young Professionals Series: Meet Evan Griffith, Indium

Meet Indium Corporation’s Evan Griffith, our featured young professional. He has a bachelor’s degree in materials engineering and a master’s degree in engineering management from Dartmouth College, and works in Utica, New York.

Book Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Low-Temperature Soldering, Vol. 2

Low-temperature solders (LTS) continue to attract serious interest from the electronics industry. These solder alloys enable the use of lower glass transition temperature (Tg) substrates and components due to the lower processing temperature, promote long-term reliability by reducing exposure to thermal excursion, and enable organizations to meet sustainability targets. In this quick-read article are sharing an excerpt from Chapter 1 of the second volume of The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Low-Temperature Soldering.

Catching Up With Bob Duke of ASC’s Global Sourcing Division

Since we last talked to Bob Duke, president of American Standard Circuits’ Global Sourcing Division, I wanted to see how things are going and what a difference a year makes. Not surprising, and knowing how Bob operates, things are (spoiler alert) going great. Check it out for yourself.

Book Excerpt: The Printed Circuit Assembler’s Guide to... Encapsulating Sustainability for Electronics

Encapsulation resins are ruggedizing solutions for challenging environments. There are several different options available, and it is possible to segment them in many ways, including chemistry type, cure method, or end application. This book is written as an introductory guide to aid the reader in understanding these encapsulation resins. It should act as a tool for application troubleshooting, taking an in-depth look at specific test methods and their relevance to key industries. What follows is an excerpt from Chapter 1.

Governments Struggling With ‘Silicon-to-Systems Approach’

What do you do when you don’t know what to do? That is the conundrum facing U.S. government officials overseeing billions of dollars in strategic investments in the domestic microelectronics industry. Enormous grants are beginning to flow to the chips sector, and after years of IPC advocacy and education efforts, policymakers have gained a clearer picture of the rest of the electronics supply chain, including everything chips depend on to function.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week

It’s been a great week. I spent part of the week at PCB East, which was held at the Boxboro Regency in Boxboro, Massachusetts. I haven’t been to Boxboro in about 20 years. The last time I was at PCB East in Boxboro, design instructor Mary Sugden had a hot plate and a supply of bologna in her room, because she preferred fried bologna to anything she could get in a restaurant. Never a dull moment with PCB designers! 

Has It Really Been Survival Mode?

In the face of an ever-growing electronics demand, our experiences from 2020 onward with rapid constraints in supply, and unexpected demand fluctuations, EMS companies face a more limited ability than we are accustomed to quickly adjust incorrect component mixes, and respond to shortened component lifecycles. Add to that the need to carefully approach the addition of very expensive capacity. We end up repeatedly answering the same set of questions, every day, for every job in our queue.

Solving Problems and Validating Excellence

“IPC’s slogan is Build Electronics Better, which is 100% what Validation Services is,” says Randy Cherry, who directs the program, now in its 11th year. Having created the program from the ground up and weathered the COVID drought just when the program was gaining momentum, IPC Validations Services has 165 customers and an impressive 98% retention rate.

My Experience as an International Student

In the summer of 2017, after finishing my bachelor’s, I decided to leave India to pursue my ambitions. I had grown up around engineering: My dad was a mechanical engineer, which fueled my interest in engineering as I always saw him working on complex HVAC projects. After high school, I took competitive exams and was admitted to the University of NMIMS in Mumbai to pursue mechanical engineering. After graduating with my bachelor's degree, I felt a strong desire to delve deeper into the field. Pursuing a master's degree abroad seemed like the perfect way to gain this in-depth knowledge, so I decided to apply to U.S. universities because I saw them as world leaders at the forefront of technology and research.

IPC Releases Newest List of Standards Updates, Revisions

Each quarter, IPC releases a list of standards that are new or have been updated. To view a complete list of newly published standards and standards revisions, translations, proposed standards for ballot, final drafts for industry review, working drafts, and project approvals, visit These are the latest releases for Q2.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO 2024: Progress and Opportunities in Industrial Workforce Development

IPC's Cory Blaylock and Victoria Hawkins discuss the exciting progress in workforce issues, with IPC celebrating the approval of their national program standards. The Department of Labor has broadened its list of occupations, notably approving the PCB design engineer role. There are funding opportunities for apprenticeship programs, particularly for underrepresented populations. IPC also offers supportive services for employer companies and workforce development initiatives.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week 

This week, our columnists enjoy particular attention with Barry Olney, Mehul Dave, and Happy Holden all providing valuable insight on materials, the critical importance of the front-end engineering process once a PCB design is received, and an overview and observations around IPC APEX EXPO technical sessions.

EOS Brings IPC Standards to South Korea

We are well aware of the saying, “There are no borders in the world economy.” To grow, a company must think about establishing a global customer base, no matter how small the product. So, the product must be manufactured according to a common global standard. In electronics manufacturing, one South Korean company learned that IPC standards should be applied immediately.

IPC APEX EXPO Retrospective: The Founders Look Back

IPC APEX EXPO 2024 will soon feel like a distant memory, and by all accounts, it was a good show with an impressive display of technical knowledge. During the show, I visited with industry icons and IPC Hall of Fame recipients Dan Feinberg and Gene Weiner, who were among the original visionaries and founders of what became APEX EXPO. These individuals took me on a funny and engaging historic journey and a glimpse into how we arrived today.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO 2024: Electrification of Automobiles: Challenges and Solutions

Grace O'Malley, VP of technical operations for iNEMI, shines a light on the electrification of automobiles, the need for industry alignment, standardization, and collaboration to tackle challenges. She mentions issues from a recent workshop, changing use cycles, longer vehicle lifespan, and the role of OEMs and the supply chain. Grace also highlights the importance of collaboration and appreciates the opportunity to work with industry leaders.

Catching Up With Tom Yang of CEE PCB

I was in the Bay Area recently and met with my new friend Tom Yang, CEO of CEE PCB, a $450 million Chinese PCB fabricator. For too long, we have enjoyed the luxury of complaining about Chinese companies without even knowing who they are and what they do. That’s just too easy. My mission was to talk to a real live shop owner in China. With this interview, you will have a better and more personal understanding of CEE and the rest of the Chinese PCB industry.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO 2024: An Introduction to IPC's Validation Services

Randy Cherry, director of IPC's Validation Services (VS) Program, sits down with Editor Marcy LaRont to discuss the program's global success and expansion, touching on the IPC-1791 Trusted Supplier and Cybersecurity List, the QPL/QML programs, and a newly introduced standard being developed in the automotive space. Randy also shares his upcoming travel plans to Australia and expresses his hope that the VS program will see much global growth in the coming months.

Empowering the Smart Factory Era With AI

The paradigm of operational excellence has emerged as a key focus area in today's rapidly evolving manufacturing landscape. Realizing this shift, manufacturers are increasingly exploring ways to optimize operations to meet the challenges of the "new normal." The manufacturing sector's challenges, particularly regarding personnel and talent, are not going away. Thus, the conversation has shifted toward addressing these challenges through automation, artificial intelligence (AI), and collaboration with suppliers.

High Temperature Component Warpage as a Function of Moisture Sensitivity (MSL) Rating

Moisture sensitivity requirements for non-hermetic surface mount devices are defined in the joint IPC/JEDEC standard J-STD-020E, “Joint IPC/JEDEC Standard for Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Non-hermetic Surface-Mount Devices,” last updated in December 2014. This standard allows customers and suppliers to place electronics devices into specific categories, defined into 8 different moisture sensitivity levels (MSL). Test method criteria are defined within this standard to define MSL levels for different packages. A subsection of MSLs are shown in Figure 1 below, showing the MSL 3 and 4 used in this study.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO: A Unique Approach to Design for Manufacturability (DFM)

Chad Orebaugh from Key Tronic Corporation, an electronics supplier, takes time to outline the company's operations, challenges, and their unique approach to design for manufacturability—DFM. Highlights of this conversation include the importance of industry standards and guidelines, while also emphasizing the need to innovate and manufacture beyond existing norms.

Best Student Poster: Drop Shock Reliability

Two Auburn University doctoral candidates authored a poster on drop shock performance of solder alloys in BGA assemblies that won Best Student Poster at IPC APEX EXPO 2024. They received a $750 cash prize and a $2,000 scholarship. Palash Vyas is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Industrial Engineering with more than three years of research experience in reliability testing of PCBs. His paper was co-authored by Soroosh Alavi, who has bachelor’s and master’s of science degrees in industrial engineering.

Chiplet Architecture for AI Will Create New Demands for Assembly

As we look deeper into the entire AI ecosystem, it becomes clear that AI algorithms are intensely hungry for compute power. This demand for compute resources is accelerating beyond the customary rate predicted by Moore’s Law, just as traditional semiconductor fabrication methods are failing to maintain Moore’s Law. It’s a real dilemma.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO 2024: Advanced Technologies with BlueRing Stencils

Guest Editor Kelly Dack and Greg Smith, manager of stencil technology with BlueRing Stencils, discuss the company's capabilities and services. They explore the use of nano coatings for thin stencils and determining the area ratio. Greg emphasizes the role of stencil artwork in controlling solder deposition and the need for collaboration between designers and stencil companies. They also focus on thinner stencils and step stenciling techniques for achieving proper solder deposition.

Delving Into Special Sessions at IPC APEX EXPO 2024

Once again, we were back at IPC APEX EXPO for another show and conference, and back to gathering in the Anaheim Convention Center. With Disneyland just across the street, there were tourists everywhere. This APEX EXPO was bigger than ever, with more activities, Professional Development Courses, standards committee meetings, and the 16th Electronic Circuits World Convention. I really enjoyed walking around and seeing everything the show had to offer.

IPC Excellence in Education Award: Janene Stinson

Janene Stinson of Boeing is this year’s proud winner of IPC’s Excellence in Education Award. This award recognizes Janene’s work in the defense and aerospace industry for over 30 years, and enduring contribution to workforce development in more than 20 years of teaching and training with IPC.

Real Time with… IPC APEX EXPO 2024: IPC's Workforce Training and Onboarding Solutions

IPC's Kelly Allen and Carlos Plaza chat about the organization's workforce training courses. They discuss the importance of efficient onboarding, the challenges and opportunities in integrating new hires, and IPC's solutions for a smoother onboarding process. They also touch on expert involvement in IPC education and introduce new courses on component identification and standards.

I-Connect007 Editor’s Choice: Five Must-Reads for the Week

Recently, I was reading a report from Deloitte on the Mexican economy (and don’t judge me what I read while I wait my turn at the gym). This particular report is cited in an interview scheduled for the June 2024 issue of SMT007 Magazine. I made note of a few things.

Listen to I-Connect007’s Latest Podcast Episode: Empowering Electrical Engineers

I-Connect007 is thrilled to announce the release of the latest episode in Series 3 of its popular podcast, On the Line With... , available now on Apple and Spotify.

Taking Standards and Industry Into a Future Age

IPC APEX EXPO 2024 proved to be another busy week in the world of IPC Factory of the Future standards development. It would be near impossible to cover every last nook and cranny of important discussions, outcomes, and future-looking plans that occurred during our Factory of the Future standards committee meetings, but we will do our best to provide a textual highlight reel for the week.

An AI Revolution in Wire Harness Manufacturing

In the wire harness industry, a narrative unfolds that is as intricate and interconnected as its products. Arik Vrobel’s journey from El-Com Systems to the founding of Cableteque is one of enduring innovation, strategic adaptation, and a deep understanding of the industry’s evolving needs. His development of an AI application for the wire harness industry may be a game-changer for manufacturers.

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